What does clean energy mean?

In short, clean energy can be defined as a type of energy which is infinitely renewable and is not reliant on raw materials. Other important criteria for clean energy sources are portability, not needing maintenance, production at the point of demand,  zero waste output and non-noisy production. Turkey is quite rich in terms of both solar and wind power. We do not have the luxury to let this wealth go to waste, and must regard our infinite wind and solar power resources as the main future candidate for heating and electricity production in the years ahead.

Does the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources provide any incentives for “Clean Energy Production” projects using renewable energy sources?

In Turkey, investments for energy production are made and operated by the private sector according to Law #6446 on Electric Market. As yet, the ministry offers no support for similar projects. For this project, it may be considered viable to apply for programs for R&D projects being conducted by Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, Presidency of the Agency for Supporting and Developing Small and Medium-Scale Businesses (KOSGEB) and the Presidency of Technology and Innovation Support Programs (TEYDEP), operating under the Turkish Agency for Scientific and Technological Research (TÜBİTAK).

If an electricity generation facility is established without license based on renewable energy sources, to whom and at what price and for how many years can the surplus power be sold?

The surplus of electricity generated by facilities established without license to produce electricity renewable energy sources will be purchased for a period fo 10 years at the price listed in the Schedule I to the Law on Renewable Energy Sources, if online by the end of 2020.

What is the licensure procedure for renewable energy power plants?

The roadmap for obtaining license for renewable energy sources is available at: http://www.yegm.gov.tr/yenilenebilir/lisansli_yol_haritasi.aspx.

Where can I find information on the wind power potential of individual provinces of Turkey?

The General Directorate of Renewable Energy has created and made available to users a Wind Power Potential Atlas of Turkey (REPA). Using REPA, it is possible to access information on wind power potential for Turkey, regions, provinces or specific areas. Wind power data is available at: http://www.yegm.gov.tr/YEKrepa/REPA-duyuru_01.html.

How is the geothermal power potential is distributed in Turkey?

In Turkey, the areas with potential are located 79% in West Anatolia, 8.5% in Central Anatolia, 7.5% in Marmara Region, 4.5% in East Anatolia and 0.5% in other regions. 94% of our geothermal springs are low or moderate-temperature, suitable for direct applications (i.e. heating, spa tourism, mineral extraction), and 6% are suitable for indirect applications (i.e. electricity generation).

What are the regulatory rules for environmental suitability inspection of geothermal power plants in Turkey?

The environmental impact assessment approval of geothermal power plants is governed by Article, Paragraph 3 of the Regulation Implementing Law #5686 on Geothermal Sources and Natural Mineral Waters, which provides the following: “After obtaining an operation license, the license holder will obtain approval of Environmental Impact Assessment or an Environmental Impact Assessment Waiver, and make an application with the ministries, public agencies and institutions concerned within three months, to obtain the necessary regulatory permissions as required by the regulations currently in force governing the licensed area and operation. Operation cannot be initiated before completing the Environmental Impact Assessment process and obtaining the necessary permits.” Also, Article 12 of the implementing regulation provides that “The Administrative Authority (for metropolitans, the Governor’s Office) will conduct yearly inspections to verify that appropriate measures are in place for protecting the geothermal system and the environment, and reinjection and discharge operations are performed in line with the technical requirements and environmental protection regulations.”

What is the maximum installed capacity of licensed solar power plants?

According to the Regulation on Electricity Market Licensure, the installed capacity of individual plants cannot exceed 50 MW in a pre-license application for establishing a solar-based power plant. However, according to the Regulation on Zones of Renewable Energy Sources, the total installed capacity will be determined by the Specifications Sheet to be prepared by the Ministry.

Is solar-based electricity production incentivized?

According to Law #5346 on the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for Generating Electricity, operators are granted a purchase guarantee at 13.3  US cents per kWh for 10 years, for power plants coming online before the end of 2020. Also, for licensed solar power plants, the prices applied to local certified equipment listed in Schedule 2 to the Law adds to the guarantee price for 5 years.

Is obtaining a license and forming a corporation required for sites with less than 1MW capacity?

Users who wish to meet their own electricity demand may establish renewable energy power plants with up to 1 MW installed capacity. Such individuals are not required to obtain a license or form a corporation.

How is electricity generated from solar power?

Solar panels produce electricity, unlike solar collectors which produce hot water. The sunlight hitting the panel surface causes the panels, which are made of a special semiconductor material, to generate//convert solar power to electricity. The system need not receive direct sunlight to function; daylight is sufficient, which allows production even in cloudy weather.

How is electricity generated from wind power?

The blades of a wind turbine enables conversion of the wind’s kinetic energy to electricity. Production capacity/power increases in proportion to the turbine blade size and wind speed.